First, what is “quantum entanglement” and “quantum teleportation”?
Security is extremely important when transmitting information over long distances.
In traditional communication methods, information is expressed as two types of signals (1s and 0s), which are transmitted to the destination via electrical wires or optical fibers.
However, by introducing the principles of quantum mechanics into communications, each time we increase the number of qubits, we can increase the number of usable signal patterns by two, making it possible to send more information faster and more securely.
A typical method is “quantum teleportation” using “quantum entanglement”.
Quantum teleportation uses particles in a state of quantum entanglement, and takes advantage of the property of quantum mechanics that any operation performed on one particle will immediately affect the other particle.
However, for many people, it can be difficult to visualize in words alone.
Therefore, we will first consider the mechanism using the primitive information transfer method as an example.
The most primitive way to transmit information in an instant is to use long boards or sticks.
For example, when using a long, narrow board, if you make an arrangement so that the back side is used when the bird of prey is not visible, and the front side is used when the bird is visible, the observer (dispatcher) can notify the hunter (dispatcher) at a distance when a bird appears, This allows you to inform the recipient quickly and calmly.
If you think about this method of communication in a slightly more complex way, you will notice that there is a fixed relationship behind the scenes, where if the sender side is the front, the receiver side is also the head, “if one side is 〇〇, the other is 〇〇.
In quantum entanglement, this fixed relationship, “if one side is 〇〇, the other is 〇〇,' is formed not between the two ends of a long, thin plate, but between two entangled particles.
For example, if you split light into a special crystal, you can create two entangled particles, one oscillating vertically and the other horizontally.
However, at this time, there is no information in the universe about whether vertical or horizontal light is facing left or right for it to be observed.
All that exists is an invisible thread connecting intertwined relationships: “If one is vertical, the other is horizontal.”
Consider this strange phenomenon in the case of one lover going to Hokkaido and the other to Kyushu.
Hence, the rule that “if one person is a man, the other person will be a woman” exists as an invisible thread, and for people living in Hokkaido and Kyushu, information about gender is hidden in the universe until it is discovered. This means that they exist in a state in which they are neither male nor female.
Using humans as an example makes things seem strange, but in the quantum world where everyday logic does not apply, this understanding is more correct.
But this is just the beginning.
Truly strange phenomena begin to occur as soon as observations are made.
At the moment of observation, a change occurs in the light that was neither vertical nor horizontal, and it is reborn in the form of either of them (the vertical light in the figure).
The information that one light (on the right) has been reborn as a vertically swaying light is as if it was instantly transmitted to the other light (on the left in the diagram) by an invisible thread of relationship connecting the two lights. The light on the left side is recreated as a horizontally swaying light.
The result is the same as common sense in everyday life: “If the light on the right side oscillates vertically, then the light on the left side oscillates horizontally.”
However, the fact that “information only appears through observation” and the process by which observed information is instantly transmitted and reconstructs the properties of other light, is far from common sense.
Moreover, in theory, even if the distance between the right and left sides were the edge of the galaxy, the information we observed on the right side would immediately be transmitted to the left side through an invisible thread, causing a reconstruction of the light. .
To be honest, some people might think it's hard to believe or that it's a lie.
(*Please refer to the article below for detailed information about the mechanisms of quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation.)
A simplified explanation of the Nobel Prize in Physics “Quantum Entanglement”
However, just because something is counterintuitive doesn't mean it's a lie.
Since the discovery of quantum entanglement, countless experiments have been performed, and the results have shown that this counterintuitive phenomenon is real.
Researchers at the University of the Witwatersrand decided to use this teleportation mechanism to physically transfer image data.
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