October 1, 2022

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The ‘fourth hair’ of a black hole? Shows the possibility of a ‘vortex’ | Sorae Gateway to the Universe

【▲ Photo of the supermassive black hole at the center of the elliptical galaxy M87. Published in April 2019 (Credit: EHT Collaboration)】

Black holeIt’s arguably the most extreme thing in the universe, but in fact, it’s arguably a relatively easy object to manipulate in theory.

“Ordinary stars” like the Sun and Earth consist of various properties such as material composition, mass, temperature, shape and colour, and are difficult to manipulate in theory. On the other hand, black holes are easy.The properties of a black hole are mass, charge, and angular momentum (rotational speed or rotational speed) and all other properties are missing. Compare this to “a black hole only has three hairs”,bald black hole theoryCall.

Thus, black holes are theoretically traceable objects, and it is possible to predict in advance how much black holes will appear, as evidenced by direct images of the black hole in the center of M87 and so on, it can be dealt with with high accuracy.

[▲ الشكل 1: اعتمادًا على تقدم هذا البحث ، هناك احتمال أن تتم إضافة شعر ثقب أسود واحد.  (رصيد الصورة: Dvali ، وآخرون)]

[▲ الشكل 1: اعتمادًا على تقدم هذا البحث ، هناك احتمال أن تتم إضافة شعر ثقب أسود واحد. (رصيد الصورة: Dvali ، وآخرون)]

However, even if it is theoretically easy to deal with, not all black holes can be said to be understood. One of the cases that I have in dealing with black holes isTheoretical description of black holes in the microscopic worldhe is.

The existence of black holes has been predicted by “general relativity,” a theory of the total world. On the other hand, black holes occur at zero size singularities, which are said to be in the center, or very close to the surface.Hawking radiation

etc., have many unavoidable properties in “quantum mechanics” dealing with the microscopic world. For this reason, it is necessary to describe the gravitational properties of black holes using quantum mechanics.

* … Explain that a classical black hole that does not take into account quantum mechanics does not emit anything, but in fact, if the effect of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the black hole emits heat, albeit to a very small extent. This is called Hawking radiation. Since thermal radiation corresponds to a release of energy = mass, it is estimated that a black hole will lose all of its mass after a very long period of time, like tens of ones followed by zeros. This is called black hole evaporation.

In order to overcome this situation, in recent years, the idea of ​​“If you hurry, turn around” has been theoretically invented. This background spans a number of very difficult theories, so this time I’ll omit the exact part and extract only the important points.First of all, as mentioned earlier, radiation called Hawking radiation is expected to be emitted from the surface of the black hole. Hawking radiation is the same as thermal radiation in ordinary matter, and it turns out that the equations describing Hawking radiation also apply to ordinary matter. For this reason, in terms of thermal radiation, we can think of ‘ordinary matter that has properties in common with black holes’. this is” satoron

(Satoron).this timeSaturon is an ordinary material that has partially the same properties as a black hole.

Please think. Satron is just ordinary matter, and it doesn’t have extreme gravity, for example. On the other hand, by allowing the satorons, it becomes possible to consider some properties of black holes by replacing them with the theory of ordinary matter.After that, the myriad atoms that make up matter behave as if they were a gigantic particle.”Bose-Einstein condensate

I suspect. It is a very extreme property, but it is also found in ordinary materials. Bose-Einstein capacitors can be created in the laboratory, their properties depend heavily on quantum mechanics and are well understood experimentally as well as theoretically.One of the interesting properties displayed in the Bose-Einstein condensation experiment is “quantum vortex

It is known that a helical structure called “” appears. Quantum vortices are also difficult to describe in one word, but here, just like regular vortices, think of them as the same vortices that occur in flowing water. Quantum vortices are known to appear in Bose-Einstein condensates, which rotate at a certain speed.

Putting them together, matter that became a Bose-Einstein condensate is a state in which ordinary matter can be easily manipulated by quantum mechanics, making it easy to cross-verify theory and experimental values.Finally, we give a further explanation of gravity, which is also a hallmark of black holes. As mentioned earlier, attempts to describe gravity from a quantum mechanics perspective have been unsuccessful, but one hypothesis is “graviton

Attempts have been made to describe it assuming the existence of elementary particles called ‘. The graviton has not yet been discovered, and the subject of debate is whether gravity travels through elementary particles in the first place, so it is not clear whether this idea is correct.

However, if gravitons did indeed exist, they could be Bose-Einstein condensates, and it is theoretically expected that a fast-spinning black hole could be viewed as a Bose-Einstein condensation booster.

Well, I guess it’s been hard to come up with different terms so far, but what I want you to remember in this article is the following.Some equations describing the properties of black holes are also applicable to ordinary matter, and we can assume satellites with such properties. Ordinary matter can be placed in a state called a Bose-Einstein condensate, which is easy to work with in quantum mechanics. In other words, if we can assume the existence of Saturon as a black hole-like substance, then on the contrary, “Assuming that a rotating black hole is a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons“It may be considered that they have characteristics in common with each other. If so,We assume that the properties observed in Bose-Einstein condensates were also observed in black holes.

[شكل 2: هناك قواسم مشتركة مقابلة بين الثقوب السوداء والمادة العادية التي ليست ثقبًا أسود. إنه طريق ملتوٍ ، ولكن إذا كان من الممكن رؤية إشعاع هوكينغ للثقب الأسود في مادة عادية ، فلن يكون مفاجئًا إذا كان من الممكن رؤية الدوامات الكمية التي تُرى في المادة العادية في الثقب الأسود. (الائتمان: Riri Ayae)]

[شكل 2: هناك قواسم مشتركة مقابلة بين الثقوب السوداء والمادة العادية التي ليست ثقبًا أسود. إنه طريق ملتوٍ ، ولكن إذا كان من الممكن رؤية إشعاع هوكينغ للثقب الأسود في مادة عادية ، فلن يكون مفاجئًا إذا كان من الممكن رؤية الدوامات الكمية التي تُرى في المادة العادية في الثقب الأسود. (الائتمان: Riri Ayae)]A research team led by Gia Dvali at the University of Munich has an idea like this to discover a new property of black holes, which is “black hole with quantum vortex

It was theoretically expected. Of course, the process leading to the prediction is not so simple, and is in fact the result of solving equations for the properties of the satellite.However, the equations for Saturn’s rotation speed and number of quantum vortices are very similar to those for black hole angular momentum and thermal radiation, and it is entirely possible that the two are related. In addition to mass, charge, and angular momentum, black holes have a fourth property: whirlpool

(ordorism)

[▲ الشكل 3: الدوامات الكمية في الثقوب السوداء يُعتقد أنها تحاصر خطوط المجال المغناطيسي وقد تكون مسؤولة عن الحفاظ على المجال المغناطيسي القوي للثقب الأسود. نظرًا لأن الدوامة الكمومية لها أيضًا دوامة مضادة للدوامة (الموجبة) ، فإن دوامة الثقب الأسود بأكمله تكون موجبة أو ناقصة صفر. (رصيد الصورة: Dvali ، وآخرون)]

[▲ الشكل 3: الدوامات الكمية في الثقوب السوداء يُعتقد أنها تحاصر خطوط المجال المغناطيسي وقد تكون مسؤولة عن الحفاظ على المجال المغناطيسي القوي للثقب الأسود. نظرًا لأن الدوامة الكمومية لها أيضًا دوامة مضادة للدوامة (الموجبة) ، فإن دوامة الثقب الأسود بأكمله تكون موجبة أو ناقصة صفر. (رصيد الصورة: Dvali ، وآخرون)]by the way,The rotation speed of a black hole is generally zeroIt is expected that the quantum vortices that appear in black holes can be said to be anti-vortex (positive) vortices.Quantum vortices with opposite properties

They appear, cancel each other out and result in a plus or minus zero. However, “zero as a whole” and “nonexistent” are completely different. So, if a black hole had a vortex, would anything change?Each vortex is an individual amount of a black holeCatch the magnetic lines of forceIt is valid. The number of quantum vortices that a black hole can hold increases as the black hole’s angular momentum increases, and the number of magnetic lines of force that can be captured increases accordingly. In short,fast spinning black holeCompared to slowly rotating black holes,The surrounding magnetic field is getting strongerit will be. The source of the magnetic field trapped in a quantum vortex could be explained if the dark matter around the black hole had a very weak electric charge.black hole with vortexteeth,Presence of weakly charged dark matter

It is also indirectly marked.

【▲ Figure 4: The elliptical galaxy “M87 (Messier 87)” imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. M87 is known as an active galaxy, and the jet emits from the center (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgments: P. Cote (Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics) and E. Paltz (Stanford University)]

【▲ Figure 4: The elliptical galaxy “M87 (Messier 87)” imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. M87 is known as an active galaxy, and the jet emits from the center (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgments: P. Cote (Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics) and E. Paltz (Stanford University)]A vortex black hole isGalaxy active

There is also a possibility to unravel the mystery of the nature of the so-called galactic “. It is known that the center of an active galaxy radiates energy very intensely. There is a general opinion that the “engine” that is the source of this phenomenon can only be considered a huge black hole, but there is still a part that is not It can be explained.The amount of pure energy and the intensity of its change cannot be explained without a strong magnetic field around the black hole, but the magnetic field of the accretion disk surrounding the black hole is much stronger than what is theoretically possible.Until now, this cannot be explained.However, the situation is different if the black hole has a vortex. Since the quantum vortex captures magnetic field lines, the black hole itself can have a magnetic field indirectly. In short,black hole with vortexteeth,Explain the strong magnetic fields of active galaxies

Could you. It is also possible that the black hole vortex is indirectly responsible for the activity seen in the cores of many galaxies, even if they are not as dense as active galaxies.Vortex black holes may also exhibit other interesting properties. Since the black hole’s rotation speed theoretically has an upper limit, the vortex also has an upper limit.Black hole with maximum vortexTheoretically incapable of eddy-altering thermal radiation, soThe evaporation of black holes by Hawking radiation is prohibited

that it. However, the problem is that there can be a black hole spinning too fast, and if the spin speed is decreased by absorbing matter, it can drop below the maximum vortex, so the actual black hole doesn’t evaporate. It is a problem that is unlikely to last forever.

Moreover, the vortex is likely to affect the observations of the embedded objects by gravitational waves. With the advent of gravitational wave telescopes, we are now observing gravitational waves associated with the merging of many compact celestial bodies. Most of them are thought to be mergers of black holes, but in a few cases, small celestial bodies share a mass less than several times the mass of the Sun, and in some cases, X-ray emissions have been observed at the same time as gravitational waves. One or both of these mergers are believed to be neutron stars due to their estimated mass and electromagnetic emissions.However, because the information obtained from gravitational waves is very limited, it cannot be determined that the identity of the merged object is in fact a neutron star.If black holes have a vortex, electromagnetic waves can also be radiated by fusion

Therefore, compared to the case in which it is assumed to be a neutron star based solely on mass information, considerations regarding its identity will be expanded.

source

Text: Rare verse

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