Is the universe we live in one of an infinite number of universes?
“Do alternate universes have habitable worlds?”
At first glance, it might seem like a science fiction story with speculation and speculation. It’s actually not absurd, says Professor Geraint Lewis of the University of Sydney, Australia.
Is there only one universe, or could there be many universes?
A non-absurd argument, Professor Lewis argues, is that many “bubble” universes were born after the Big Bang.“multiverse”He is. Astrophysicist Alan Guth, who created the theory of inflation, is one of the scientists who originated the idea of the multiverse theory.
According to Guth, the primordial universe expanded rapidly in less than 10 minus 32 seconds after the Big Bang.inflation theoryIt is said that the multiverse theory is inevitably derived from this. But as Professor Lewis notes, the multiverse theory seems to be a bone of contention among physicists.
Related topics: What was the “big bang” that started the universe? It also explains the theory and naming
The multiverse theory suggests that there may be differences in natural constants such as the cosmological constant and physical laws between our universe and other universes.
For example, in the universe, where the mass of electrons is 100 times the mass of the universe in which we live, not only life and planets but also fixed stars may not have been born. Assuming that the multiverse theory is correct, Professor Lewis asked whether life arose only in our universe, where the conditions are right, or whether life could have arisen in other universes with different conditions.
The ratio of oxygen and carbon is important for the birth of life
Therefore, the research group of Professor Lewis et al.Verification of space conditions for the birth of a habitable environmentan act.
In our universe, hydrogen and helium were produced by the Big Bang, and other elements were produced by nuclear fusion and supernova explosions within stars. These processes are governed by four forces: the strong force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and gravity. The mass of elementary particles such as electrons and quarks also plays an important role.
Professor Lewis and others have suggested that, given the constraints that fundamental quantities related to these factors (such as the fine-structure constant and the mass ratio of electrons and protons) remain unchanged, a habitable environment can be created when the overall conditions change. Seems to have been verified with a simulation if this can be done. The conditions examined by Professor Lewis and his colleagues include the mineral-to-rock ratio, the carbon-to-oxygen ratio, the magnesium-to-silicon ratio, the presence of nitrogen, which is a component of DNA, RNA, and proteins, and the presence of iron, phosphorus and sulfur.
verification result,It is the ratio of carbon to oxygen that is important for habitabilityit turns out. Professor Lewis and others believe that carbon monoxide is generated from the oxygen and carbon present in the gases that make up the protoplanetary disk, and that the ratio of carbon to oxygen strongly influences the formation of planetary systems and the creation of a habitable environment. analysis.
The completeness of the absolute theory or the limits of science?
However, Lewis cautions that the multiverse theory is still in the hypothetical stage. At this point, the multiverse theory has not been verified, and it is said that it is not known whether it can be verified. Nor is it known whether there really is a universe that differs from the laws of physics that govern the universe in which we live.
Professor Lewis concludes that we may be at the beginning of a journey to uncover the final scaffolding in the infinite universe.
Text by Misato Kadono
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