Quantum mechanics is a well-tested, empirically proven theory that at the same time causes at least a frown in every student. The mathematical formulations of the theory are a bit more compelling, but this alone is no reason to doubt. However, these concepts are difficult to explain. According to the most popular interpretation, the world consists of wave functions whose evolution over time is inevitable. This does not directly describe how the world changes, but at least how the probabilities of certain events behave.
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However, if one turns to the measurements in this view, it becomes confusing: the wave function collapses instantly to a state that matches the result of the measurement. But this contradicts the spirit of the theory of relativity, because, among other things, an infinitely extended wave function can collapse somewhat instantaneously. This “frightening action at a distance,” as Albert Einstein called this phenomenon, is particularly evident in the famous example of two entangled quantum particles: they are prepared in such a way that they share zero angular momentum and then separate from each other. If you then measure the spin of one particle, the wave function of the other particle, possibly a distant particle, immediately collapses. Many physicists consider this property ugly.
Are there any ways out? Yes really. Hugh Everett (1930-1982) developed a popular alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics, the many-worlds theory. Accordingly, the wave function does not collapse, but the world is divided according to probabilities, so that after the measurement process there are two independent copies of the universe (in the simplest case). If you think about how many particles there are and how many reactions take place, each of which can lead to many different outcomes, you get an amazing amount of a multiverse. So the many-worlds theory is not a suitable alternative.
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